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Useful tips for essay writing – Part 3

Table 1

Type in the text of actants

Semantic types of actants – actant subject – object

– To make action.
– Includes a sign of animation.
– Often performs the semantic role of the Agent. – To suffer the effects of other actants.
– Frequently performs semantic role patsiensa.

Numbering of tables, charts and figures used even in those cases, if the table (chart pattern) is only one. The numbering is done separately for tables, diagrams and drawings.


References in the abstract, as in other students’ work (coursework and diplomas), can be done in two ways: (1) the link located at the bottom of the page, or (2) at the end of the text.

References located at the end of the entire text of the abstract.

To the links in the text requirements may vary. For example, common to use parentheses in some departments of the university: (Basov, 1931, 132). And possible use in the link, and a colon instead of a comma (Basov, 1931: 132);

[Basov in 1931: 132]. In addition, in the magazines often made reference to the use of numbering the bibliography: [1, p. 132].

The average number of references to the abstract from 2 to 10. Links are needed for all of accurate data and direct quotations.


Quote is quoted and is in one of the grammatical form in which it is given in the source, preserving the characteristics of the author’s writing. The abstract is not allowed direct borrowing material from any source, without reference to them.

What distinguishes the exact quote from inaccurate?

The exact quote verbatim reproduces someone else’s text. This quote is written in quotation marks, and then quote reference is made to work with the obligatory indication of the page.
For example: In our studies, we adhere to generally approach the psychology of sex differences [Filatova 2006] .Ispolzuya inaccurate quotation, the author recounts the text of the abstract self-quoted work. This quote is written without quotation marks, reference is made to work, but an indication of the page number is not required.

Making transfers

Text listing of all elements should be grammatically subordinate to the preceding introductory phrase.
Example: actant Rank is determined by a number of the following principles:

The place in the title.
Semantic role actant.

Language wording in the abstract should be concise, clear and to avoid ambiguous interpretations. In the presentation of the text it is recommended to use an impersonal construction, avoiding personal pronouns (eg, “I”, “you”). Thus, in the abstract is better to write as follows: “In the present paper analyzes the problem of inflation in modern Russia” (instead of “In this paper I analyze the problem of inflation in modern Russia”). You can use the word “shall”, “should” to create impersonal constructions, “necessary” and others. It is recommended to write (if possible) with short, simple sentences.

You must use a scientific writing style, which assumes the logic, consistency and lack of expressiveness.
Umberto Eco in his book, “How to write a thesis,” gives an example of unacceptable scientific speech saying: “The pianist Wittgenstein, brother of the famous philosopher, author of work” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “, today universally recognized as a masterpiece of modern philosophy, was lucky to get by composer Ravel’s Concerto for the left hand, because he was not fortunate enough to be deprived of the right hand during the First world war (1914-1918). ” This phrase should be replaced on the following: “One of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein brothers (author of the famous” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “) was a pianist. In war pianist Wittgenstein lost his right hand. Therefore, the French composer Maurice Ravel created a concerto for the left hand, and dedicated it to Wittgenstein.”

The abstract should be written in literary language and well decorated. It is important to remember that the work is not recommended to use the speed of conversational speech, professionalism, and other non-literary language. Also avoid new cuts of words, nevertheless allowed the use of the established rate.